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APPENDIX V About the significance of the Moon and the Sun on Earth's atmosphere

  • In the core of Earth  (about 3,000 km deep down) the energy of continuous rotation (about 840 km per hour at Finland) of  hot metal mass generates electric currents which cause magnetic fields.
  • Earth's magnetic field caused by its magnetic axis is the strongest around its magnetic poles.
  • Earth's magnetic field is stronger than that of Earth's because the mass of the Moon is smaller.
  • The electric current measured on Earth is the same as the one in the human body  where the electric structures of salt and water maintain electric or energy current

The magnetic field of the Moon

  • The influence of the gravity of the Moon on Earth is at its strongest in autumn and winter months and at its weakest in May, June and July.
  • The gravity of the Moon gets stronger regularly at intervals of about two weeks. At its strongest it is soon after full or new moon. See Tidal statistics..
  • There is variation in the influence of the gravity of the Moon because the distance between Earth and the Moon varies because the orbit of the Moon is elliptic and it bends in relation to Earth so that at its highest it goes up to latitude 28,5º on the celestial sphere and at its lowest to latitude 18,5° at an interval of 18 years.

The influence of the Sun on Earth's magnetic field 

Sun spots can be seen as dark spots on the surface of the Sun. They are powerful centers of the Sun's magnetic field whose number regulates the total radiation. They appear in cycles of about 11 years. The duration of the periods varies 8.5 – 15 years. There are two peaks in the sun spot maximum and a more peaceful period between them. The higher the sun spot maximum is, the more magnetic storms the Sun causes during its existence. A single, strong magnetic storm can occur in any phase of the solar cycle. There are other, longer sun spot cycles such as 90 and 200 years. Magnetic disturbance from the Sun has increased during the whole 20th century and the average solar activity has been exceptionally high in its last two decades.

Solar wind carries electro-magnetic current of electrons and protons from the radiation energy of the Sun. The rotation of the Sun can be seen in the spiral-like shape of solar wind, which originates in the corona, "a vail" in the outermost part of the Sun's atmosphere whose holes let the solar wind blow freely out of  the magnetic field.

The holes in the corona may prevail during several rotation periods of the Sun. That's why there is a 27-day cycle in the occurrence of magnetic storms especially in the diminishing phase of a sun spot cycle, when the holes "live" longest.

Magnetic storms are caused by flares or Coronal Mass Ejections in the Sun when several strong sun spots hit a hole in the Corona simultaneously. The solar wind takes the particle current into space.

The magnetic fields of Earth and solar wind are connected when the magnetic axis of Earth and the magnetic field of solar wind are most at right angles to each other right after the vernal and autumnal equinoxes. That time of the year more electrically charged particles have the access to Earth's atmosphere, causing magnetic disturbances in its magnetic field. It's statistically likely that solar winds can be intensified into magnetic storms after equinoxes. In November and July these storms solar storms are statistically frequent.